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Climate for a Nation

Forecast: 1 January 1901

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Battling the Elements

Forecast: 1 January 2001


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A Climate for a Nation - Endnotes

1. Age, 1 January 1901, p5; Daily Telegraph, 1 January 1901, p. 5. [Return to page 2]

2. Daily Telegraph, 1 January 1901, p. 5; Age, 1 January 1901, p. 6. See also Helen Irving, To constitute a nation: a cultural history of Australia's constitution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, pp. 16–17 [Return to page 2]

3. Age, 2 January 1901, p. 5 [Return to page 2]

4. For example, George Essex Evans won a NSW government prize for the best Commonwealth Day Ode for his poem which began:

Awake! Arise! The wings of dawn
Are beating at the Gates of Day!
The morning star has been withdrawn,
The silver vapours melt away!
Rise royally, O Sun, and crown
The shoreward billow, streaming white,
The forelands, and the mountains brown,
With crested light;
Flood with soft beams the valleys wide,
The mighty plains, the desert sand,
Till the New Day has won for bride
This Austral land!
[Return to page 2]

5. Age, 2 January 1901, p. 6 [Return to page 2]

6. Irving, To constitute a nation, pp. 16–17 [Return to page 2]

7. Geoffrey Blainey, A land half won, Sun Books, Melbourne, 1983, pp. 348–361 [Return to page 2]

8. On attempts to coordinate meteorology before Federation, see: R. W. Home and K. T. Livingston, 'Science and technology in the story of Australian federation: The case of meteorology, 1876–1908', Historical Records of Australian Science, vol. 10, no. 2, 1994, pp. 109–127. For general accounts of colonial meteorology and meteorologists, see: W. J. Gibbs, 'The Origins of Australian Meteorology', Metarch Papers, no. 12, June 1998; W. J. Gibbs, 'A mini-history of meteorology in Australia', in Eric K. Webb (ed.), Windows on Meteorology: Australian perspective, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1997, pp. 81–104; J. Gentilli, 'A history of meteorological and climatological studies in Australia', University Studies in History, vol. 5, no. 1, 1967, pp. 54–79; H. C. Russell, 'Astronomical and meteorological workers in New South Wales, 1778–1860', Australasian Association for Advancement of Science, vol. 1, 1888, pp. 45–94. [Return to page 2]

9. Power over 'astronomical and meteorological observations' is conferred by Section 51 (viii) of the Australian Constitution. See http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/general/constitution/par5cha1.htm Inclusion of this power was debated at the Australasian Federal Convention in 1897, see: Official Report of the National Australasian Convention, Adelaide, March 22 to May 5, 1897, Adelaide, Government Printer, 1897, pp. 775–6. See also: John Quick and Robert Randolph Garran, The annotated constitution of the Australian Commonwealth, reprint of 1901 ed., Legal Books, Sydney, 1995, p. 566 [Return to page 2]

10. For biographical information see: David Carment, 'Groom, Sir Littleton Ernest', in Bede Nairn and Geoffrey Serle (eds), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1983; David Carment, 'The making of an Australian liberal : The political education of Littleton Groom, 1867–1905', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 62, no. 4, March 1977; Jessie Groom, Nation building in Australia : The life and work of Sir Littleton Ernest Groom, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1941 [Return to page 3]

11. Toowoomba Chronicle, 10 December 1903. [Return to page 3]

12. Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates (CPD), vol. 14, 30 June 1903, pp. 1569–1570; CPD, vol. 17, 22 September 1903, p. 5272; CPD, vol. 18, 23 March 1904, p. 808; CPD, vol. 19, 25 May 1904, p. 1525. [Return to page 3]

13. CPD, vol 32, 1 August 1906, pp. 2136–2142. On the legislative program of the Deakin government, see: J. A. La Nauze, Alfred Deakin—a biography, 2 vols., vol. 2, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1965, pp. 407–408; Littleton Ernest Groom, Nation building in Australia : the work of the second Deakin administration, 1905–1908, Protectionist Association of Victoria, Melbourne, 1909. [Return to page 3]

14. CPD, vol. 32, 1 August 1906, p.2141 [Return to page 3]

15. Groom linked Commonwealth action on meteorology with his long sought-after Commonwealth Bureau of Agriculture, modelled on the US Department of Agriculture, see: Toowoomba Chronicle, 10 December 1903; Toowoomba Chronicle, 15 November 1906; Groom, Nation building in Australia : the work of the second Deakin administration, 1905–1908, pp. 9–10. On Groom's hopes for the Bureau of Agriculture, see: CPD, vol. 36, 23 July 1907, p. 776–8; Littleton Ernest Groom, 'Australian Bureau of Agriculture: Memorandum on the establishment of', Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers, no. 194, 1908; CPD, vol. 50, 3 August 1909, pp. 1919–29; Sir George Currie and John Graham, The origins of CSIRO: Science and the Commonwealth Government 1901–1926, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1966, pp. 1–6 [Return to page 3]

16. CPD, vol. 50, 30 July 1909, p.1886 [Return to page 3]

17. John Hogan, 'Notes prepared by John Hogan (1896–1970)', Metarch Papers, no. 2, March 1986, pp. 15–17. For more biographical information on Taylor, see: Thomas Griffith Taylor, Journeyman Taylor: The education of a scientist, Robert hale, London, 1958; Marie Sanderson, Griffith Taylor—Antarctic scientist and pioneer geographer, Carleton University Press, Ottawa, 1988. For more on the early research work of the Bureau, see: J. Gardner, 'Stormy weather: A history of research in the Bureau of meteorology', Metarch Papers, no. 11, December 1997 [Return to page 3]

18. Joseph Michael Powell, Griffith Taylor and 'Australia Unlimited', The John Murtagh Macrossan Memorial Lecture, 1992, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1992; Joseph Michael Powell, An historical geography of modern Australia, Cambridge university Press, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 129–149; David R. Oldroyd, 'Griffith Taylor and his views on race, environment, and settlement, and the peopling of Australia', in Useful and curious geological enquiries beyond the world: Pacific-Asia historical themes. The 19th International INHIGEO Symposium, Sydney, 1994, pp. 251–274. [Return to page 3]

19. For an examination of some of Taylorís graphical methods, see: Ibid., pp. 252–253, 267–8 [Return to page 3]

20. Various versions of Taylor's map showing Australiaís settlement prospects appeared from the 1920s onwards, see: Ibid., p. 268. For some further examples, see: Powell, An historical geography of modern Australia, pp. 144–7. [Return to page 3]

21. Thomas Griffith Taylor, Australia: A study of warm environments and their effect on British settlement, Methuen & Co. Ltd, London, 1947, frontispiece. [Return to page 3]

22. Ibid., p. viii [Return to page 3]

23. Powell, Griffith Taylor and 'Australia Unlimited'; David Walker, Anxious Nation: Australia and the Rise of Asia 1850–1939, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1999, pp. 154–167 [Return to page 3]

24. Powell, An historical geography of modern Australia, p. 149 [Return to page 3]

25. J. J. C. Bradfield, 'Watering inland Australia', Rydge's Weekly, 1 October 1941; Richard Raxworthy, The unreasonable man—The life and works of JJC Bradfield, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1989, pp. 136–7 [Return to page 3]

26. Hogan, 'Notes prepared by John Hogan (1896–1970)',, p. 15 [Return to page 3]

27. Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau, 'Bradfield Scheme for "Watering the Inland": Meteorological aspects', Bulletin (Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau), no. 34, 1945 [Return to page 3]

28. Ibid.,, p. 25 [Return to page 3]

29. This figure was apparently suggested by Bradfield in response to the Premier of Queensland, see: Raxworthy, The unreasonable man—The life and works of JJC Bradfield, p. 137 [Return to page 3]

30. For some of the changes and continuities in the vision of 'Australia Unlimited', see: Tim Sherratt, 'Frontiers of the future: Science and progress in twentieth century Australia', unpublished draft, 2000 [Return to page 3]

31. Sydney Morning Herald (SMH), 19 June 1957, 'Australia Unlimited' Supplement, p. 28. [Return to page 3]

32. Ian Levy, 'Lake Eyre Inland Sea: A Millennium Project', Australian Institute of Geoscientists, 28 May 2000. [Return to page 3]

33. CPD, 17 August 1993, p. 51. [Return to page 3]

34. CPD, 23 October 1997, p. 9752. [Return to page 3]

35. George Essex Evans, 'In time of drought', Brisbane Courier, 18 September 1902, p. 9. [Return to page 4]

36. Groom, Nation building, p. 229; La Nauze, Alfred Deakin—a biography, pp. 229–30. [Return to page 4]

37. Evans, 'In time of drought'. [Return to page 4]

38. Walker, Anxious nation, pp. 113–126. [Return to page 4]

39. Argus, 25 November 1913. [Return to page 4]

40. Walker, Anxious nation, pp. 141–153; David Walker, 'Climate, civilisation and character in Australia, 1880–1940', Australian Cultural History, no. 16, 1997/98, pp. 77–95; Warwick Anderson, 'Geography, race and nation: Remapping "Tropical" Australia', Historical Records of Australian Science, vol. 11, no. 4, 1997, pp. 457–68; Neville Nicholls, 'A healthy climate?', in Eric K Webb (ed.), Windows on meteorology: Australian perspective, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1997, pp. 105–117. [Return to page 4]

41. Argus, 25 November 1913. On white settlement as an 'experiment', see: Walker, Anxious nation, p. 150. [Return to page 4]

42. Argus, 25 November 1913. [Return to page 4]

43. Walker, Anxious nation, pp. 98–126. [Return to page 4]

44. Irritant gas was first used in October 1914, with the first use of poison gas following in April 1915, see: Peter Dennis, ed., The Oxford companion to Australian military history, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1995, p. 263. [Return to page 4]

45. D. P. Mellor, The role of science and industry, vol. 5, Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 4 (Civil), Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1958, pp. 512–3; see also comments by H. A. Hunt, Commonwealth Meteorologist, Argus, 2 August 1919. [Return to page 4]

46. Ibid., p. 513. For an explanation of the 'knobbly lines' see: 'What the lines mean on weather maps', SMH, 9 April 1946, p. 2. [Return to page 4]

47. On Australian meteorology in WW2, see: Ibid., pp. 512-530; J Joyce, 'The story of the RAAF Meteorological Service', Metarch Papers, no. 5, October 1993; T. Haldane, 'War history of the Australian Meteorological Service in the Royal Australian Air Force, April 1941 to July 1946', Metarch Papers, no. 10, October 1997. [Return to page 4]

48. Mellor, The role of science and industry, p. 523. For a first hand account of this work, see: W. J. Gibbs, 'A glimpse of the RAAF Meteorological Service', Metarch Papers, no. 7, March 1995. [Return to page 4]

49. SMH, 24 December 1955, p.5. [Return to page 4]

51. Press release headed 'Meteorological services in atomic weapons tests', 15 February 1956, NAA A6456/3 R209/4. [Return to page 4]

52. Royal Commission into British Nuclear Tests in Australia, The report of the Royal Commission into British Nuclear Tests in Australia, 3 vols., vol. 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1985, pp. 233–4. [Return to page 4]

53. Sun Herald, 31 December 2000. [Return to page 5]

54. Neville Nicholls, 'Developments in climatology in Australia, 1946–1996', Australian Meteorological Magazine, vol. 46, 1997 [Return to page 5]

55. Peter Whetton, 'Floods, droughts and the Southern Oscillation connection', in Eric K. Webb (ed.), Windows on meteorology: Australian perspective, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1997, p. 181. [Return to page 5]

56. On Australia's role in international cooperation, see: W. J. Gibbs, 'A perspective of Australian meteorology—1939–1978', Australian Meteorological Magazine, vol. 30, no. 1, March 1982, p. 7; W. J. Gibbs, 'A very special family: Memories of the Bureau of Meteorology, 1945–1962', Metarch Papers, no. 13, May 1999. [Return to page 5]


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