||Technology in Australia 1788-1988
Table of Contents
I Management Of Native Forests
II Plantations-high Productivity Resources
i Exotic pines
ii Native species
III Protecting The Resource
IV Harvesting The Resource
V Solid Wood And Its Processing
VI Minor Forest Products
VII Reconstituted Wood Products
VIII Pulp And Paper
IX Export Woodchips
X Future Directions
In the mid-1930s the South Australian Woods and Forests Department started long-term systematic research on thinning, the results of which were first reported by Jolly in 1950. The work was later extended by Lewis et al resulting in the publication of a guide to optimum thinning which has been regarded as a major contribution to pine plantation management in Australia.
In 1937 Jacobs showed that there was sufficient genetic variability in radiata pine to justify breeding programs. Little development was possible until after the Second World War, when radiata pine improvement was advanced by the work of Fielding and others which led in 1957 to the establishment of the first seed orchard for this species. By the early 1970s seed orchards capable of producing genetically improved trees were operating in all States. Eldridge has estimated the overall wood volume gain from this program at 20 per cent over the first generation (about 20 years) with marked improvement in stem and branch quality.
Most of the Úlite trees which were the basis of these programs were selected from existing plantations. Because of threats to the small native stands of radiata pine in its native California and off-shore islands, a major project by CSIRO and the New Zealand Forest Research Institute in 1978 collected seed from a wide variety of sites there and these collections have now been established in provenance trials in Australia, New Zealand and many other countries.
Early provenance testing of maritime pine in Western Australia showed the superiority of a strain from Leira, Portugal and this has since been the basis for seed or-chards. Additional genetic material collected there in 1963-65 has been used in breeding experiments and has produced further substantial gains in volume growth.
The current outlook
Organisations in Australian Science at Work - CSIRO Division of Forest Research; Queensland Forest Service; South Australia. Woods and Forests Dept
People in Bright Sparcs - Dargavel, J. B.; Eldridge, K. G.; Fielding, J. M.; Henderson, V. T; Jacobs, M. R.; Jolly, N. W.; Keeves, A.; Leech, J. W.; Lewis, N. B.; Nelson, P. F.
© 1988 Print Edition pages 204 - 205, Online Edition 2000
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher