PreviousNext
References - 2
Previous/Next Page
Technology in Australia 1788-1988Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
----------
Table of Contents

Chapter 2

I Technology Transported; 1788-1840

II Technology Established; 1840-1940

III The Coming Of Science

IV From Science To Technology: The Post-war Years

V Products And Processes

VI Conclusion

VII Acknowledgements


Index
Search
Help

Contact us
Chapter 2 - Food Technology - References

1. J. M. Beaton, 'Fire and water: aspects of Australian aboriginal management of cycads'. Archaeology of Oceania, vol. 17, 1982, pp. 51-8. [Return to text]

2. M. Smith, 'Late Pleistocene zamia exploitation in southern Western Australia', in Archaeology of Oceania, vol. 17, 1982, pp. 117-21. [Return to text]

3. G. L. Laqueur and M. Spatz, 'Toxicology of cycasin', Cancer Research, vol. 28, 1968, pp. 2262-7. [Return to text]

4. K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, p.3 [Return to text]

5. This segment relies heavily on Chapter 2 of K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia', Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, in which a detailed discussion of the period, with references, may be found. [Return to text]

6. For a useful summary see B. H. Fletcher, 'Agriculture' in Economic Growth of Australia 1788-1821, G. J. Abbott and N. B. Nairn eds., Melbourne, M. U. P., 1969. pp. 191-218. [Return to text]

7. G. J. R. Linge, Industrial Awakening, A Geography of Australian Manufacturing 1788 to 1890, Canberra ANU, 1979, p. 311. [Return to text]

8. J. Burnett, Plenty and Want, Pelican Books, 1968, p. 138. [Return to text]

9. J. Ilbery 'History of Wine in Australia', Australia and New Zealand Complete Book of Wine, L. Evans, Ed., Dee Why, NSW, Paul Hamlyn, 1973, pp. 15-7. [Return to text]

10. See K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia', Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 3, for a detailed discussion of Appert, his work, and the establishment of canning. [Return to text]

11. J. S-C. Dumont d'Urville, Two Voyages to the South Seas. Vol. 1, Australia, New Zealand, Oceania 1826-1829 in the corvette Astrolabe. Translated from the French and edited by Helen Rosenman. In press. [Return to text]

12. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia', Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 4. [Return to text]

13. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia', Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 65-70;
K. T. H. Farrer, 'Sizar Elliott: Technologist and Transient Tasmanian', Tasmanian Historical Research Association: Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1984, pp. 9-15. [Return to text]

14. Times (London), 9 February, 1869; Lancet, 1869, Vol. I, p. 234. [Return to text]

15. S. Elliott, Fifty Years of Colonial Life, Melbourne, T. Smith and Company, 1887, p. 40. [Return to text]

16. J. Gamble and Company, Official Reports and Copies of Numerous Documents Relative to the Latest Improvements of Gamble's Patent Fresh Preserved Provisions, 1832, p. xi. [Return to text]

17. For a discussion of Joseph's short-lived venture see K. T. H. Farrer, A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 70-1. [Return to text]

18. S. Goldner, British Patent No. 8873, 8 March 1841; K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 43-7 and chapters 5 and 6, passim. [Return to text]

19. Report from the Select Committee on Preserved Meats (Navy) together with the Minutes of Evidence. Parliamentary Papers 1852 (303), XV, Reports. [Return to text]

20. See K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 71-8, for an assessment of the Dangars' contribution. [Return to text]

21. J. Wood, Van Diemen's Land Royal Kalendar, Colonial Register and Almanack (Hobart) 1852;
Intercolonial Exhibition of Australia Melbourne 1866-67 Official Record; Argus, 20 April, 1870. [Return to text]

22. L. E. Benjamin, Hobart, private communication, December 1974, based on H. Jones & Co. Pty. Ltd. records. [Return to text]

23. See K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 80-3, 95-9, Chapter 6 passim. [Return to text]

24. see K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 81-5, 99-108 for a full discussion of Ritchie and the Melbourne Meat Preserving Company and Chapter 6, passim, for other references to Ritchie's contributions to Australian meat canning. [Return to text]

25. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, p. 83. [Return to text]

26. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, Chapter 6, passim. [Return to text]

27. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 93, 118-20. [Return to text]

28. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 117-25. [Return to text]

29. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 89, 108-10, 133-7. [Return to text]

30. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, p. 84. [Return to text]

31. A Simpson, Victorian Patent No. 701/684, 8 February 1864; New South Wales Patent No. 97, 17 August 1864. [Return to text]

32. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 125-9. [Return to text]

33. For this and for a summary of Australian canning and canmaking to 1986 see O. White, The Saga of the Canmaking Industry in Australia, Commonwealth Canmakers Association, 1956.
See also J. Feldmann, Gadsen: The First 100 years, Melbourne, J. Gadsen Australia Ltd. 1980, Chapter V, for contribution of that company. [Return to text]

34. E. C. May, The Canning Clan, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1937, Chapters 12 and 13, passim. [Return to text]

35. Report from the Select Committee on Preserved Meats (Navy) together with the Minutes of Evidence. Parliamentary Papers 1852 (30), XV, Questions 2164, 2165. [Return to text]

36. Standard, 14 November 1871;
Medical Press and Circular, 1873 (I), 9 April, p. 314. [Return to text]

37. Age and Argus, 11 May 1871;
Standard, 14 November 1871. [Return to text]

38. Medical Press & Circular; Standard, loc. cit. [Return to text]

39. L. R. Hill, Mt. Gambier and District Pictorial 1854-1947. [Return to text]

40. S. C. Prescott and W. L. Underwood, Technological Quarterly, X(l), p. 183, 1897; XI(1), p. 6, 1898. [Return to text]

41. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 59. [Return to text]

42. J. Feldmann, Gadsen: The First 100 years, Melbourne, J. Gadsen Australia Ltd. 1980, p. 93. [Return to text]

43. See a series of papers by D. J. Casimir and co-workers in CSIRO Food Preservation Quarterly, Vol. 35, 1975, pp. 34-9 and 63-7, Vol. 36,1976, 25-8;
C. O. Ball, 'Sterilization of canned food by heat' in Encyclopedia of Food Technology, A. H. Johnson and M.S. Peterson, eds., Westport, Conn., AVI, 1974, pp. 862-4;
J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 152. [Return to text]

44. British Patent No. 1523, 20 June 1864; T. Archer, To the Shareholders of the Central Queensland Meat Preserving Company Limited, 1 May 1874. [Return to text]

45. These and Liebig's meat extract are discussed in K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 9. [Return to text]

46. This segment draws heavily on K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 8, which should be consulted for references not separately noted. [Return to text]

47. K. T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 154-8. [Return to text]

48. J. Reynolds, 'Sir Henry Jones, K. B.', Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Proceedings, vol. 20, 1973, pp. 21-41. [Return to text]

49. Anon 'Edgell the first fifty years 1926-1976', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 29, 1977, pp. 193-6. [Return to text]

50. A. F. Spawn, Tasmanian Patent application 28 January 1886; S. C. Prescott, A Half Century of Public Health, M. P. Ravenel, ed., American Public Health Association, 1921, pp. 224. [Return to text]

51. Based largely on K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 10. [Return to text]

52. For details of Harrison's work see W. R. Lang James HarrisonPioneering Genius, Newtown, Victoria, Neptune Press, 1982. [Return to text]

53. For a detailed account of Mort and Nicolle's contributions to refrigeration see A. Barnard, Visions and Profits, Melbourne, MUP, 1961, chapter 8. [Return to text]

54. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. IX, 1868, pp. 47-52 and xiv-xvi. [Return to text]

55. Times, 1 October 1873. [Return to text]

56. See papers by T. S. Mort and E. D. Nicolle, On the Preservation of Food by Freezing and the Bearing it will have on the Pastoral and Agricultural Interests of Australia', Journal of the Agricultural Society of New South Wales, new ser., vol. II, No.15, 1875, pp.244-60. [Return to text]

57. Times, 9 February 1880, p. 11. [Return to text]

58. J. I. Bleasdale, Annual Report, Victorian Department of Agriculture, 1873, Appendix B, 'Meat Preserving', p. 61. [Return to text]

59. J. R. Vickery 'Notes on Australian Food Technology since 1900' in press;
idem, 'Louis Frederick Bullot -- a pioneer in meat technology'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 37, 1985, pp. 458-61. [Return to text]

60. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 20-3. [Return to text]

61. Anon., The Playfair Story 1860-1960, Sydney, Playfair, 1960. [Return to text]

62. Anon., Cyclopedia of Tasmania, Hobart Service Publishing Company, 1931, p. 74;
E.G. Hall, Refrigeration of fruits and vegetables: market quality and conditiona cold appraisal. CSIRO Food Preservation Quarterly, vol. 40, 1908, pp. 100-5;
see also J Seppings, 'Where have all the orchards gone?', Walkabout, vol. 33, 1967, pp. 28-32 for an account of experiments in 1908 by orchardists in Doncaster, Victoria. [Return to text]

63. J. R. Vickery, 'Notes on Australian Food Technology since 1900'. [Return to text]

64. Use has been made of W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, passim, and K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 203-10. [Return to text]

65. W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, p. 12. [Return to text]

66. W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, pp. 16, 17, 20, 21. [Return to text]

67. W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, p. 38. [Return to text]

68. A. Russell, William James Farrer, Melbourne, F. W. Cheshire, 1949, p. 41. [Return to text]

69. W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, pp. 39-41. [Return to text]

70. W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, p. 121. [Return to text]

71. D. C. Mugford, N. L. Stenvert, and U. Venn-Brown, The Thiamin content of Australian bakers' flour', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 31, 1979, pp. 185-9. [Return to text]

72. E. E. Bond, 'Servicing the needs of industrycereal chemistry's role'. Chemistry in Australia, vol. 47, 1980, pp. 188-94. [Return to text]

73. W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, pp. 74, 94, 120-1, 168 note 7. [Return to text]

74. E. E. Bond, 'Servicing the needs of industrycereal chemistry's role'. Chemistry in Australia, vol. 47, 1980, pp. 188-94 [Return to text]

75. Information concerning Fielders supplied by T. A. Smit 1984. [Return to text]

76. C. Anne Wilson, Food and Drink in Britain, London, Constable, 1973, pp. 147 and 234;
J. Ross, Hobart Town Almanack, 1929. [Return to text]

77. G. A. Derham, ed.. The First Hundred Years 1854-1954, Melbourne, Swallow and Ariell Ltd., 1954, passim: ADB, vol. 6, p. 230. [Return to text]

78. K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, p. 209. [Return to text]

79. Anon. 'Arnott'sbiscuitmakers for 120 years'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 37, 448-9, 1985; ADB, vol. 3, p. 53. [Return to text]

80. Cyclopedia of Tasmania, Hobart, The Service Publishing Co., 1931, p. 212. [Return to text]

81. Anon. 'Arnott'sbiscuitmakers for 120 years'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 37, 448-9, 1985; ADB, vol. 3, p. 53. [Return to text]

82. R. J. Hastings, Australian Patent No. 136448, 21 February 1950 and No. 151657, 1 June 1953; B. R. Simpson, Golden Crumpets, private communications 16 February and 28 May, 1984. [Return to text]

83. References consulted include: G. S. J. Brinsmead, A Geographical Study of the Dairy Manufacturing Industry in Gippsland 1840-1910, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1977;
M. Cullity, A History of Dairying in Western Australia, Nedlands, University of Western Australia Press, 1979;
K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 215-21;
G. T. Laffan, ed., Dairy Farming in Australia, Victorian 2nd ed. revised, Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry, 1964, chapter 1;
M. Lake, A Hundred Years of Dairying in the Fassifern, no publisher, n.d.;
K. Sillcock, Three Lifetimes of Dairying in Victoria, Melbourne, The Hawthorn Press, 1972. [Return to text]

84. J. L. Kraft, USP 1620, 1916. [Return to text]

85. C. P. Callister, D.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 1931. [Return to text]

86. See J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 63-76 for a detailed discussion of the attempts to organize dairy research. [Return to text]

87. K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 220-1, 234-8. [Return to text]

88. J. D. Craske, personal communication, 1986. [Return to text]

89. For a summary to 1900 see K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, pp. 210-5. [Return to text]

90. Several dates have been given. I have preferred that quoted by W. R. Lang James HarrisonPioneering Genius, Newtown, Victoria, Neptune Press, 1982, p. 71. [Return to text]

91. K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, p. 213. [Return to text]

92. G. Parsons article on de Bavay, Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 8, pp. 262-4, from which all references here to de Bavay are taken. [Return to text]

93. G. Parsons article on de Bavay, Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 8, p. 263, col. 1. [Return to text]

94. For a useful summary of the period 1886-1986 see J. Harvey, 'From British Ale to Australian Lagera Hundred Years of Change', Proceedings of the 19th Convention of the Australia and New Zealand Section, Institute of Brewing, Hobart, 1986. [Return to text]

95. J. Harvey, 'From British Ale to Australian Lagera Hundred Years of Change', Proceedings of the 19th Convention of the Australia and New Zealand Section, Institute of Brewing, Hobart, 1986. [Return to text]

96. W. H. Bird, A History of the Institute of Brewing, London, The Institute, 1955, passim. [Return to text]

97. E. T. Williams, personal communication, May 1986. [Return to text]

98. J. Ilbery 'History of Wine in Australia', Australia and New Zealand Complete Book of Wine, L. Evans, Ed., Dee Why, NSW, Paul Hamlyn, 1973, p. 18. [Return to text]

99. G. C. Bishop, Australian Winemaking: The Roseworthy Influence. Hawthorndene, South Australia, Investigator Press, 1980, pp. 23-5. [Return to text]

101. Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 3, p. 183. [Return to text]

102. Bleasdale published a number of lectures and papers on wine in which there was considerable repetition. They are: (i) Report of the Jury on Wines, Report of the Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866-67. (ii) 'On Colonial Wines', a paper read to the Royal Society of Victoria, 13 May, 1867, Melbourne, Stillwell & Knight, 1867, for private circulation, 24 p. (iii) 'Pure Native Wine Considered as an Article of Food and Luxury', a paper read at the South Australian Institute, 12 December 1867. Andrews, Thomas & Clarke, Adelaide, 1868, 24 p. (iv) Intercolonial Exhibition Essays, 1872-73. No. 6 'On Wines', with Report of the Wine Experts (written by Bleasdale). (v) 'On Colonial Wines', Zoological and Acclimatization Society of Victoria, Proceedings 2, 1873, 233-88. (vi) An Essay on the Wines sent to the Late Intercolonial Exhibition, Melbourne, F. F. Bailliere, 1876. [Return to text]

103. G. C. Bishop, Australian Winemaking: The Roseworthy Influence. Hawthorndene, South Australia, Investigator Press, 1980, p. 21. [Return to text]

104. G. C. Bishop, Australian Winemaking: The Roseworthy Influence. Hawthorndene, South Australia, Investigator Press, 1980, p. 158. [Return to text]

105. G. C. Bishop, Australian Winemaking: The Roseworthy Influence. Hawthorndene, South Australia, Investigator Press, 1980, Chapters 2 and 3; p. 169. [Return to text]

106. See, H. M. Franklyn, A Glance at Australia in 1880, Melbourne, The Victoria Review Publishing Company Limited, 1881, p. xix;
W. B. Withers, History of Ballarat, Ballarat, F. W. Niven & Co., 2nd Ed. 1887;
W. B. Kimberley, ed., Ballarat and Vicinity, Ballarat, F. W. Niven & Co., n.d., but probably 1894, pp. 78-9;
Weston Bate, Lucky City: the First Generation at Ballarat 1851-1901, Melbourne, MUP, 1978, p. 129. [Return to text]

107. Australian Town and Country Journal, 17 January, 1874, p. 101. [Return to text]

108. For this segment I have drawn freely on A. Birch and J. F. Blaxland, 'The Historical Background' in A. G. Lowndes, ed. South Pacific Enterprise: The Colonial Sugar Refining Company Limited, Sydney. Angus and Robertson, 1956, pp. 11-53;
on J. R. Alien, 'Australian Sugar Technology: A Leader in the Development of Process Industries' Proceedings of Chemeca 1983, Brisbane, and on Sugar Research Institute Annual Reviews.
I am especially indebted to private communications from Dr. J. R. Alien and Dr. C. R. Murray of the Sugar Research Institute, Mackay, Q. [Return to text]

109. Argus 26 April, 24 May 1867, 28 October 1868, 23 April, 21 May 1870, 13 August, 10 October 1872, 20 November 1873, 17 October 1874;
D. F. Jowett and I. G. Weickhardt, Return to Ross Town, Mordialloc, Victoria, Rodale Press, 1978 pp. 134-!60. [Return to text]

110. The enabling Act was passed on 7 December 1905 and the first Regulations appeared in mid-1906. For a detailed discussion see W. C. K. Hammer, 'The Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act of 1905', Serialized in Food Technology in Australia from October 1979 to June 1980 (Volumes 31 and 32). [Return to text]

111. See for example A. M. Moyal, Scientists in Nineteenth Century Australia: A Documentary History, Melbourne, Cassell Australia 1976, passim, but especially the Introduction. [Return to text]

112. For a more detailed discussion of the control of the food supply see K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 12. [Return to text]

113. For a more detailed discussion of the control of the food supply see K.T. H. Farrer, 'A Settlement Amply Supplied: food technology in nineteenth century Australia 1788-1821,' Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1980, chapter 12. [Return to text]

114. I have drawn freely on C. W. Wrigley, 'W. J. Farrer and F. B. Guthrie: the unique breeder chemist combination that pioneered quality wheats for Australia'. Records of the Australian Academy of Science, vol. 4, 1979, pp. 7-25. [Return to text]

115. A. Russell, William James Farrer, Melbourne, F. W. Cheshire, 1949;
A. M. Moyal, Scientists in Nineteenth Century Australia, pp. 237-49;
successive Farrer Memorial orations of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, but especially L. T. Evans 'Response to Challenge: William Farrer of the Making of Wheats', Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, vol. 46, 1980, pp. 3-13. [Return to text]

116. C. W. Wrigley, Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, vol. 46, 1980, p. 9;
see also F. B. Guthrie, 'Notes on the milling qualities of different varieties of wheats', Agricultural Gazette of NSW vol. 6, 1895, pp. 159-80. [Return to text]

117. Joan Radford, The Chemistry Department of the University of Melbourne: Its Contribution to Australian Science 1854-1959, Melbourne, The Hawthorn Press, 1978, pp. 69-72. [Return to text]

118. See the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry of Victoria, vols. 1-8 and for the years shown. [Return to text]

119. Sir George Pearce, 'The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Its Organization and Work', Journal of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research vol. 1, 1927, pp. 11-27. [Return to text]

120. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 4. [Return to text]

121. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 4, from which all information about the CSIRO Division of Food Research, unless otherwise stated, is derived [Return to text]

122. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 9-10. [Return to text]

123. W. J. Young, Proceedings of the Society of Chemical Industry of Victoria, vols. 19 to 27, 1919-27, pp. 1227-30. [Return to text]

124. W. J. Young, Proceedings of the Society of Chemical Industry of Victoria, vols. 27-31, 1927-31, pp. 148-53. [Return to text]

125. K. T. H. Farrer, 'C. P. Callister a pioneer of Australian food technology'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 25, 1973, pp. 52-65. [Return to text]

126. J. Harvey, 'From British Ale to Australian Lagera Hundred Years of Change', Proceedings of the 19th Convention of the Australia and New Zealand Section, Institute of Brewing, Hobart, 1986. [Return to text]

127. For a full account of these early days of the CSIR Section of Food Preservation see J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 20-41. [Return to text]

128. G. C. Bishop, Australian Winemaking: The Roseworthy Influence. Hawthorndene, South Australia, Investigator Press, 1980, Sections II and III. [Return to text]

129. G. C. Bishop, Australian Winemaking: The Roseworthy Influence. Hawthorndene, South Australia, Investigator Press, 1980, pp. 113, 169. [Return to text]

130. For a detailed description of the establishment and work of this laboratory, and of its important place in Australian cereal chemistry see W. L. Jones, W. L. Jones, Where have all the Flour Mills Gone?, Melbourne, the Flour Millers Council of Victoria, 1984, chapter 6, passim. Bottomley had a distinguished career in industrial R & D first with Kimptons and later with Mauri Brothers and Thomson in Sydney. [Return to text]

131. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 43. [Return to text]

132. For a synoptic view of this period and detailed references see K. T. H. Farrer, 'Australian food science and technology: the decade of decision 1945-1955', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 39, 1987, pp. 22-3. [Return to text]

133. P. A. Baumgartner, 'Food technology educationthe Hawkesbury perspective'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 35, 1983, pp. 414-7. [Return to text]

134. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, Parts 2 and 3, passim. [Return to text]

135. For details of Bread Research Institute Work see E. E Bond, 'Servicing the needs of industrycereal chemistry's role'. Chemistry in Australia, vol. 47(5), 188-94, 1980;
E. E. Bond, 'Milling and baking: the future', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 33(8), 364-6, 1981;
P. E. Marston, 'Research trends and developments in the Australian bread industry', Australian Chemical Processing and Engineering vol. 20(2), 1967, pp. 26-9;
N. L. Stenvert, 'Recent trends and developments in the Australian flour milling and bread industries'. Process and Chemical Engineering, vol. 29, 1976, pp.13-7 [Return to text]

136. E. E. Bond, 'Servicing the needs of industrycereal chemistry's role'. Chemistry in Australia. vol. 47(5), 1980, p. 191. [Return to text]

137. E. E. Bond, 'Servicing the needs of industrycereal chemistry's role'. Chemistry in Australia. vol. 47(5), 1980, p. 191. [Return to text]

138. For details of the work the Sugar Research Institute see J. R. Alien, 'Australian sugar technology -- a leader in the development of process industries'. Proceedings of Chemeca 1983, Brisbane;
H. T. Easterby The Queensland Sugar Industry, Brisbane, Queensland Government Printer, 1963;
Successive Annual Reviews, Sugar Research Institute. [Return to text]

139. Information on AWRI supplied by Dr T. H. Lee, Director, but see also Annual Reports of AWRI, especially the historic summaries in that for 1979, pp. 6-9, from which the quotation is taken.
For a vignette of Australian wine technology in 1986 see B. C. Rankine, 'The Australian wine industry today', Food Technology in Australia, Vol. 39, 1987, pp. 110-1. [Return to text]

140. Private communication, Dr R. Richards, Officer-in-charge AFFSE; see also Report of Independent External Review of the Defence Science and Technology Organization, 1980, pp. 55-6. [Return to text]

141. Lack of space prevents discussion of this important work. For a summary see J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, Part 3, passim, and for a detailed bibliography see J. R. Vickery 'Notes on Australian Food Technology since 1900', in press. [Return to text]

142. Short summaries of advances in many aspects of food technology between 1949 and 1970 are included in the 21st Anniversary Issue of Food Technology in Australia, vol. 22(8), 1970, pp. 384-471. [Return to text]

143. Joan Radford, The Chemistry Department of the University of Melbourne: Its Contribution to Australian Science 1854-1959, Melbourne, The Hawthorn Press, 1978, p. 152. [Return to text]

144. J. R. Vickery and H. Hirst, 'Some Australian contributions to food science and technology', Laboratory Practice, vol. 11(4), 1962, p. 261-6;
J. R. Vickery, Food Science Around the WorldAustralia, in Encyclopedia of Food Science, M. S. Peterson and A. H. Johnson, eds., Westport, Conn., AVI, 1978, p. 888. [Return to text]

145. See the Annual Reports of the Australian Dairy Research Committee during the 1970s. [Return to text]

146. D. A. Ratkowsky, J. Olley, T. A. McMeekin, and A. Ball, 'Relationship between temperature and growth rate of bacterial cultures'. Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 149 (1), 1982, pp. 1-5;
D. A. Ratkowsky, R. K. Lowry, T. A. McMeekin, A. N. Stokes, and R. E. Chandler, 'Model for bacterial culture growth rate throughout the entire biokinetic temperature range', ibid,. vol. 154 (3), 1983, pp. 1222-6. [Return to text]

147. W. J. Scott, 'Water relations of Staphylococcus aureus at 30C', Australian Journal of Biological Science vol. 6, 1953, pp. 549-64;
idem., 'Water relations of food spoilage microorganisms', Advances in Food Research, vol. 7, 1956, pp. 83-127;
J. H. B. Christian, 'Water activity and the growth of microorganisms'. Recent Advances in Food Research, vol. 3,1963, pp. 248-55. [Return to text]

148. For a comparison of these sets of principles see K. T. H. Farrer, 'Food additivesfor and against', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 27, 1975, pp. 379-87. [Return to text]

149. For details of permitted additives and the maximum permissible limits of contaminants see Model Food Regulations, NHMRC, Canberra. [Return to text]

150. For summaries of CSIRO work on flavours see J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 90-1, 100-1, 158-9. In particular D. A. Forss's work on the chemistry of cheese flavour should be noted. [Return to text]

151. For an account of this whole development see the following: J. E. Anderson and R. P. Hildebrand, 'Hop extraction'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 20 (2), 1968, pp. 74-9;
F. V. Harold and B. J. Clarke, 'Liquid CO2 hop extraction'. The Brewers Digest, September 1979, pp. 45-52;
Anon., 'How Carlton and United made hop extract history', Brewers Guardian, vol. 110 (13), 1981, pp. 54-6;
Anon., 'An update on Carlton CO2 hop extraction', Brewers Guardian vol. 112 (27), 1983, pp. 206-9;
B. J. Clarke, "The Australian HopPast, Present and Prospect', Brewers Digest, August 1984, pp. 21-3. [Return to text]

152. S. Hart, 'Flavour compounds of concentrated yeast extract', M.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, November 1973;
Kraft Foods Limited, company records. [Return to text]

153. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 147; B. V. Chandler 'One of the "101 most interesting problems in food science"Bitterness in orange juice, a case history'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 29, 1977, pp. 393-411. [Return to text]

154. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 136-7, but see J. R. Vickery, 'Notes on Australian Food Technology since 1900', for a bibliography. [Return to text]

155. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 30. [Return to text]

156. F. B. Whitfield, D. J. Freeman, J. H. Last and P. A. Bannister, 'Bis(methylthio)-methane, an important off-flavour component in prawns and sand lobsters', Chemistry and Industry, 7 March 1981, pp. 158-9. [Return to text]

157. F. B. Whitfield, D. J. Freeman and P. A. Bannister, "Dimethyl trisulphide: an important off-flavour component of the royal red prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae). Chemistry and Industry, 3 October 1981, pp. 692-3. [Return to text]

158. F. B. Whitfield, J. H. Last and C. R. Tindale, 'Skatole, indole and p-cresol: components in off-flavoured frozen French Fries', Chemistry and Industry, 4 September, 1982, pp. 662-3. [Return to text]

159. For summaries of this work see D. T. Kerr, N. G. McPhail and V. H. Powell, 'High voltage electrical stimulation of beef carcasses and sides', CSIRO Food Preservation Quarterly, vol. 43, 1983, pp. 43-9;
V. H. Powell, P. V. Harris and W. R. Shorthose, 'Beef tendernessAustralia 1985', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 38, 1986, pp. 230-3. [Return to text]

160. K. T. H. Farrer, W. R. Jewell Memorial Lecture, Royal Australian Chemical Institute, 7th Australian Symposium on Analytical Chemistry, Adelaide, August 1983. [Return to text]

161. Australian, i.e. essentially CSIR, contributions are summarized by J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 33, 108-9, 175-6, 177-8. [Return to text]

162. The work of Dr June Olley's team in Hobart may be found in Food Technology in Australia, vol. 22, 1970, pp. 350-7; vol. 23, 1971, pp. 394-8 and 444-9; vol. 25, 1973, pp. 142-9 and 189-195; vol. 26, 1974, pp. 96-107;
J. Olley, Abalone silage: an exercise in the conservation of waste, CSIRO Tasmanian Regional Laboratory, Occasional Paper No. 3, 1976;
see also Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology work on canning by A. D. Warne and N. Brown, Food Technology in Australia, vol. 34, 1982, p. 299-303 and pp. 448-451. [Return to text]

163. H. A. Bremner, 'Minced Fish in AustraliaUsage and Research', Third National Technical Seminar on Mechanical Recovery and Utilization of Fish Flesh. Raleigh, North Carolina, Dec. 1980. R. E. Martin, ed., pp. 422-450. [Return to text]

164. A. K. Sharp, Metabisulphite dipping machine. Australian Fisheries, vol. 33 (2), 1974, pp. 10-1;
J. H. Ruello 'How to handle and process the prawn catch', Australian Fisheries, vol. 35, 1976, pp. 10-2. [Return to text]

165. J. R. Vickery 'Notes on Australian Food Technology since 1900' in press. [Return to text]

166. Report on Mercury in Fish and Fish Products by the Working Group on Mercury in Fish to the Co-ordinating Committee on Metals in Fish and Fish Products. Canberra. Australian Government Publishing Service, 1980. [Return to text]

167. B. Gregson, 'Davis announces new process for gelatine manufacturing', Process Engineering News, June, 1985, p. 5; C. Hudson, private communication. [Return to text]

168. A summary of Shew's work, with references to Whitehead's work also is found in K. T. H. Farrer, 'C. P. Callistera pioneer of Australian food technology'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 25, 1973, pp. 52-65. [Return to text]

169. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 87. [Return to text]

170. B. C. Rankine 'Modern developments in selection and use of pure yeast cultures in winemaking', a paper delivered to the International Oenological Symposium, Bordeaux, June 1977;
idem., 'Developments in malo-lactic fermentation of Australian red table wines', American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, vol. 28, 1977, pp. 27-33. [Return to text]

171. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 143. [Return to text]

172. G. Blainey, A Centenary History of the University of Melbourne, Melbourne M.U.P, 1957, p. 161. [Return to text]

173. W. J. Scott, 'Water relations of Staphylococcus aureus at 30C', Australian Journal of Biological Science vol. 6, 1953, pp. 549-64;
idem., 'Water relations of food spoilage microorganisms', Advances in Food Research, vol. 7, 1956, pp. 83-127;
J. H. B. Christian, 'Water activity and the growth of microorganisms'. Recent Advances in Food Research, vol. 3,1963, pp. 248-55. [Return to text]

174. See J. I. Pitt, 'Mycotoxins in human health', CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, vol. 41, 1981, pp. 31-7;
K. T. H. Farrer, Fancy Eating That!, Melbourne, MUP, 1983, pp. 147-8;
the Newsletter of the Australian Mycotoxin Data Centre, published quarterly from vol. 1, No. 1, December 1982. [Return to text]

175. J. R. Vickery 'Notes on Australian Food Technology since 1900' in press. [Return to text]

176. These and the application of chemical engineering principles are discussed in K. T. H. Farrer, 'Chemical engineering and food technology', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 28,1976, pp. 163-7. [Return to text]

177. The author is aware of such unpublished advances in the dairy industry, fish and vegetable processing and in the handling of finished goods. [Return to text]

178. G. C. Cox and Z. N. Krapivensky, Energy Conservation in Australian dairy factories, Xerox, Australian Dairy Corporation, April 1984;
Energy Management Advisory Service, Reducing energy costs in the baking industry. Energy Authority of New South Wales, 1985;
D. MacFarlane, B. E. Todd and L. Herbert, Energy Management for the meat industry, CSIRO, Meat Research Laboratories, Brisbane, 1983. [Return to text]

179. P. E. Doe, M. Ahmed, M. Muslemuddin and K. Sachithananthan, 'A polythene tent drier for improved sun drying of fish'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 29, 1977, 437 -- 41;
P. Doe, Polythene-tent solar dryers: A summary of projects. Fish Technology News, No. 3, January 1982. [Return to text]

180. Australian Dairy Corporation, Cheese Industry Productivity Improvement Project, Report, 1986. [Return to text]

181. P. C. Thompson, 'Frozen-foods for the retail trade and catering'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 22, 1970, pp. 448-57. See this paper also for a summary of frozen foods in Australia, 1949-70. [Return to text]

182. R. S. Mitchell and L. J. Lynch, 'The Maturometer, an instrument for the objective assessment of maturity in canning peas'. Food Technology in Australia, vol. 4, 1952, pp. 195-6. [Return to text]

183. J. G. Harris, personal communication, 1986. [Return to text]

184. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 95-7.
See also F. G. Kieseker's reviews, 'Recombined dairy products' CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, vol. 43, 1983, pp. 25-37, and Food Technology in Australia, vol. 36, 1984, pp. 34-8. [Return to text]

185. See Australian Dairy Research Committee Annual Reports from 1958. [Return to text]

186. K. Sillcock, Three Life-times of Dairying in Victoria, Melbourne, The Hawthorn Press, 1972, p. 140. [Return to text]

187. This and other references to Kraft Foods Limited from company records and personal experience of the author. [Return to text]

188. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 95-7.
See also F. G. Kieseker's reviews, 'Recombined dairy products' CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, vol. 43, 1983, pp. 25-37, and Food Technology in Australia, vol. 36, 1984, pp. 34-8. [Return to text]

189. Anon., Butter Fat and Solids, vol. 14, 1972, p. 23;
J. F. Tibbs, Butter Fat and Solids, vol. 14, 1972, p. 25. [Return to text]

190. Australian Patents Nos. 19987 and 19988. [Return to text]

191. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 87, 97-9. [Return to text]

192. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 87 [Return to text]

193. From figures available from the Australian Dairy Corporation. [Return to text]

194. Australian Dairy Corporation, Project Report on Cheese Industry Productivity Improvement Project, 1986. [Return to text]

195. M.A. Thomas and K. A. Hyde, The Manufacture of Processed Cheesea Working Manual, Bull. D40, New South Wales Department of Agriculture, 1972;
M. A. Thomas, The Manufacture of Processed CheeseScientific Principles, N.S.W. Dept. ofAgr., Science Bulletin 84, 1973;
The Processed Cheese Industry, Bulletin D44, N.S.W. Department of Agriculture, 1977. [Return to text]

196. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, pp. 76-80, 85;
personal communications B. D. Dixon and N. S. Snow, June 1986. [Return to text]

197. For an excellent summary see F. G. Kieseker's reviews, 'Recombined dairy products' CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, vol. 43, 1983, pp. 25-37, and Food Technology in Australia, vol. 36, 1984, pp. 34-8, but for more details see International Dairy Federation, Document 142, 1982, 'Proceedings of IDF Seminar on Recombination of Milk and Milk Products', Singapore, 7-10 October 1980. [Return to text]

198. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 95;
for a summary of casein and coprecipitate technology see L. L. Muller, chapter 10, in P. F. Fox, ed.. Developments in Dairy Chemistry-1, Barking, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1982. [Return to text]

199. For a summary see L. L. Muller, 'Physico-chemical separation processes for food wastes', CSIRO Food Preservation Quarterly, vol. 41, 1981, pp. 37-43. [Return to text]

201. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 97. [Return to text]

202. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 171. [Return to text]

203. J. M. Bastian, D. McG. McBean and M. B. Smith, 50 years of Food Research, Melbourne, CSIRO, 1979, p. 93;
N. S. Snow, personal communication, June 1986. [Return to text]

204. See K. T. H. Farrer, 'The Impact of Food Technology on Primary Production', Food Technology in Australia, vol. 23, 1971, pp. 104-15. [Return to text]

205. P. E. Scale, 'Pineapples and progressthe changing role of technology' Proceedings of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, vol. 35, 1968, pp. 137-46. [Return to text]


Previous Page Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering Next Page


© Online Edition 2000
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher
http://www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au/tia/references2.html