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Technology in Australia 1788-1988Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
Table of Contents

Chapter 3

I Background

II Early European Settlements

III Assessment Of Available Water Resources

IV Water Supplies For Goldmining Development

V Irrigation Development

VI Farm And Stock Water Supplies

VII Urban Water Supplies

VIII Wastewater Management And Treatment
i Treatment processes
ii Re-use of effluent

IX Water Quality Management

X Limnological And Water Quality Research

XI New Techniques In Water Resource Planning And Management

XII Legislation

XIII Conclusion

XIV List Of Abbreviations

XV Acknowledgements

XVI Plantations-high Productivity Resources



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Collection systems (continued)

The Humespun process developed in Australia for making concrete pipes of high strength and low permeability, revolutionised pipe manufacture and it has been exported around the world. Humes Ltd. also developed Plastiline, a black plasticised PVC sheet specially designed to be imbedded in concrete as a surface protection.

In the design of sewage reticulation, the early Australian engineers generally opted for separate systems, one for sewage and another for surface storm water. This technique avoided the health and environmental problems associated with combined systems, but necessitated strict controls to keep surface water out of sewers, a requirement facilitated by the uniform use throughout Australia of the rubber-ring pipe joint to minimize infiltration.

An interesting innovation developed in Victoria has been the use of follow-the-flow pumping stations in sewerage systems. This technique reduces capital cost considerably by eliminating expensive wet wells; reduces turbulence and hence siltation in pipes; and lessens hydrogen sulphide formation because the sewage is kept moving.

More effective control over pipes, plumbing fittings and other accessories has been possible in Australia than in the older cities of the Northern Hemisphere because of the responsibility for sewerage being vested in statutory bodies with wide powers and a high degree of mutual co-operation and consultation. One result of this co-operation has been the development of standardised codes of practice and the licensing of plumbers, which has led to high technical standards.

Organisations in Australian Science at Work - Humes Ltd

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© 1988 Print Edition pages 181 - 182, Online Edition 2000
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher