Previous/Next Page
Federation and MeteorologyBureau of Meteorology
Table of Contents

Climate for a Nation

Forecast: 1 January 1901

Climates of Opinion

Battling the Elements

Forecast: 1 January 2001


Contact us
A Climate for a Nation - Endnotes

1. Age, 1 January 1901, p5; Daily Telegraph, 1 January 1901, p. 5. [Return to page 2]

2. Daily Telegraph, 1 January 1901, p. 5; Age, 1 January 1901, p. 6. See also Helen Irving, To constitute a nation: a cultural history of Australia's constitution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, pp. 16–17 [Return to page 2]

3. Age, 2 January 1901, p. 5 [Return to page 2]

4. For example, George Essex Evans won a NSW government prize for the best Commonwealth Day Ode for his poem which began:

Awake! Arise! The wings of dawn
Are beating at the Gates of Day!
The morning star has been withdrawn,
The silver vapours melt away!
Rise royally, O Sun, and crown
The shoreward billow, streaming white,
The forelands, and the mountains brown,
With crested light;
Flood with soft beams the valleys wide,
The mighty plains, the desert sand,
Till the New Day has won for bride
This Austral land!
[Return to page 2]

5. Age, 2 January 1901, p. 6 [Return to page 2]

6. Irving, To constitute a nation, pp. 16–17 [Return to page 2]

7. Geoffrey Blainey, A land half won, Sun Books, Melbourne, 1983, pp. 348–361 [Return to page 2]

8. On attempts to coordinate meteorology before Federation, see: R. W. Home and K. T. Livingston, 'Science and technology in the story of Australian federation: The case of meteorology, 1876–1908', Historical Records of Australian Science, vol. 10, no. 2, 1994, pp. 109–127. For general accounts of colonial meteorology and meteorologists, see: W. J. Gibbs, 'The Origins of Australian Meteorology', Metarch Papers, no. 12, June 1998; W. J. Gibbs, 'A mini-history of meteorology in Australia', in Eric K. Webb (ed.), Windows on Meteorology: Australian perspective, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1997, pp. 81–104; J. Gentilli, 'A history of meteorological and climatological studies in Australia', University Studies in History, vol. 5, no. 1, 1967, pp. 54–79; H. C. Russell, 'Astronomical and meteorological workers in New South Wales, 1778–1860', Australasian Association for Advancement of Science, vol. 1, 1888, pp. 45–94. [Return to page 2]

9. Power over 'astronomical and meteorological observations' is conferred by Section 51 (viii) of the Australian Constitution. See Inclusion of this power was debated at the Australasian Federal Convention in 1897, see: Official Report of the National Australasian Convention, Adelaide, March 22 to May 5, 1897, Adelaide, Government Printer, 1897, pp. 775–6. See also: John Quick and Robert Randolph Garran, The annotated constitution of the Australian Commonwealth, reprint of 1901 ed., Legal Books, Sydney, 1995, p. 566 [Return to page 2]

10. For biographical information see: David Carment, 'Groom, Sir Littleton Ernest', in Bede Nairn and Geoffrey Serle (eds), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1983; David Carment, 'The making of an Australian liberal : The political education of Littleton Groom, 1867–1905', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 62, no. 4, March 1977; Jessie Groom, Nation building in Australia : The life and work of Sir Littleton Ernest Groom, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1941 [Return to page 3]

11. Toowoomba Chronicle, 10 December 1903. [Return to page 3]

12. Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates (CPD), vol. 14, 30 June 1903, pp. 1569–1570; CPD, vol. 17, 22 September 1903, p. 5272; CPD, vol. 18, 23 March 1904, p. 808; CPD, vol. 19, 25 May 1904, p. 1525. [Return to page 3]

13. CPD, vol 32, 1 August 1906, pp. 2136–2142. On the legislative program of the Deakin government, see: J. A. La Nauze, Alfred Deakin—a biography, 2 vols., vol. 2, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1965, pp. 407–408; Littleton Ernest Groom, Nation building in Australia : the work of the second Deakin administration, 1905–1908, Protectionist Association of Victoria, Melbourne, 1909. [Return to page 3]

14. CPD, vol. 32, 1 August 1906, p.2141 [Return to page 3]

15. Groom linked Commonwealth action on meteorology with his long sought-after Commonwealth Bureau of Agriculture, modelled on the US Department of Agriculture, see: Toowoomba Chronicle, 10 December 1903; Toowoomba Chronicle, 15 November 1906; Groom, Nation building in Australia : the work of the second Deakin administration, 1905–1908, pp. 9–10. On Groom's hopes for the Bureau of Agriculture, see: CPD, vol. 36, 23 July 1907, p. 776–8; Littleton Ernest Groom, 'Australian Bureau of Agriculture: Memorandum on the establishment of', Commonwealth Parliamentary Papers, no. 194, 1908; CPD, vol. 50, 3 August 1909, pp. 1919–29; Sir George Currie and John Graham, The origins of CSIRO: Science and the Commonwealth Government 1901–1926, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1966, pp. 1–6 [Return to page 3]

16. CPD, vol. 50, 30 July 1909, p.1886 [Return to page 3]

17. John Hogan, 'Notes prepared by John Hogan (1896–1970)', Metarch Papers, no. 2, March 1986, pp. 15–17. For more biographical information on Taylor, see: Thomas Griffith Taylor, Journeyman Taylor: The education of a scientist, Robert hale, London, 1958; Marie Sanderson, Griffith Taylor—Antarctic scientist and pioneer geographer, Carleton University Press, Ottawa, 1988. For more on the early research work of the Bureau, see: J. Gardner, 'Stormy weather: A history of research in the Bureau of meteorology', Metarch Papers, no. 11, December 1997 [Return to page 3]

18. Joseph Michael Powell, Griffith Taylor and 'Australia Unlimited', The John Murtagh Macrossan Memorial Lecture, 1992, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1992; Joseph Michael Powell, An historical geography of modern Australia, Cambridge university Press, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 129–149; David R. Oldroyd, 'Griffith Taylor and his views on race, environment, and settlement, and the peopling of Australia', in Useful and curious geological enquiries beyond the world: Pacific-Asia historical themes. The 19th International INHIGEO Symposium, Sydney, 1994, pp. 251–274. [Return to page 3]

19. For an examination of some of Taylorís graphical methods, see: Ibid., pp. 252–253, 267–8 [Return to page 3]

20. Various versions of Taylor's map showing Australiaís settlement prospects appeared from the 1920s onwards, see: Ibid., p. 268. For some further examples, see: Powell, An historical geography of modern Australia, pp. 144–7. [Return to page 3]

21. Thomas Griffith Taylor, Australia: A study of warm environments and their effect on British settlement, Methuen & Co. Ltd, London, 1947, frontispiece. [Return to page 3]

22. Ibid., p. viii [Return to page 3]

23. Powell, Griffith Taylor and 'Australia Unlimited'; David Walker, Anxious Nation: Australia and the Rise of Asia 1850–1939, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1999, pp. 154–167 [Return to page 3]

24. Powell, An historical geography of modern Australia, p. 149 [Return to page 3]

25. J. J. C. Bradfield, 'Watering inland Australia', Rydge's Weekly, 1 October 1941; Richard Raxworthy, The unreasonable man—The life and works of JJC Bradfield, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1989, pp. 136–7 [Return to page 3]

26. Hogan, 'Notes prepared by John Hogan (1896–1970)',, p. 15 [Return to page 3]

27. Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau, 'Bradfield Scheme for "Watering the Inland": Meteorological aspects', Bulletin (Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau), no. 34, 1945 [Return to page 3]

28. Ibid.,, p. 25 [Return to page 3]

29. This figure was apparently suggested by Bradfield in response to the Premier of Queensland, see: Raxworthy, The unreasonable man—The life and works of JJC Bradfield, p. 137 [Return to page 3]

30. For some of the changes and continuities in the vision of 'Australia Unlimited', see: Tim Sherratt, 'Frontiers of the future: Science and progress in twentieth century Australia', unpublished draft, 2000 [Return to page 3]

31. Sydney Morning Herald (SMH), 19 June 1957, 'Australia Unlimited' Supplement, p. 28. [Return to page 3]

32. Ian Levy, 'Lake Eyre Inland Sea: A Millennium Project', Australian Institute of Geoscientists, 28 May 2000. [Return to page 3]

33. CPD, 17 August 1993, p. 51. [Return to page 3]

34. CPD, 23 October 1997, p. 9752. [Return to page 3]

35. George Essex Evans, 'In time of drought', Brisbane Courier, 18 September 1902, p. 9. [Return to page 4]

36. Groom, Nation building, p. 229; La Nauze, Alfred Deakin—a biography, pp. 229–30. [Return to page 4]

37. Evans, 'In time of drought'. [Return to page 4]

38. Walker, Anxious nation, pp. 113–126. [Return to page 4]

39. Argus, 25 November 1913. [Return to page 4]

40. Walker, Anxious nation, pp. 141–153; David Walker, 'Climate, civilisation and character in Australia, 1880–1940', Australian Cultural History, no. 16, 1997/98, pp. 77–95; Warwick Anderson, 'Geography, race and nation: Remapping "Tropical" Australia', Historical Records of Australian Science, vol. 11, no. 4, 1997, pp. 457–68; Neville Nicholls, 'A healthy climate?', in Eric K Webb (ed.), Windows on meteorology: Australian perspective, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1997, pp. 105–117. [Return to page 4]

41. Argus, 25 November 1913. On white settlement as an 'experiment', see: Walker, Anxious nation, p. 150. [Return to page 4]

42. Argus, 25 November 1913. [Return to page 4]

43. Walker, Anxious nation, pp. 98–126. [Return to page 4]

44. Irritant gas was first used in October 1914, with the first use of poison gas following in April 1915, see: Peter Dennis, ed., The Oxford companion to Australian military history, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1995, p. 263. [Return to page 4]

45. D. P. Mellor, The role of science and industry, vol. 5, Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 4 (Civil), Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1958, pp. 512–3; see also comments by H. A. Hunt, Commonwealth Meteorologist, Argus, 2 August 1919. [Return to page 4]

46. Ibid., p. 513. For an explanation of the 'knobbly lines' see: 'What the lines mean on weather maps', SMH, 9 April 1946, p. 2. [Return to page 4]

47. On Australian meteorology in WW2, see: Ibid., pp. 512-530; J Joyce, 'The story of the RAAF Meteorological Service', Metarch Papers, no. 5, October 1993; T. Haldane, 'War history of the Australian Meteorological Service in the Royal Australian Air Force, April 1941 to July 1946', Metarch Papers, no. 10, October 1997. [Return to page 4]

48. Mellor, The role of science and industry, p. 523. For a first hand account of this work, see: W. J. Gibbs, 'A glimpse of the RAAF Meteorological Service', Metarch Papers, no. 7, March 1995. [Return to page 4]

49. SMH, 24 December 1955, p.5. [Return to page 4]

51. Press release headed 'Meteorological services in atomic weapons tests', 15 February 1956, NAA A6456/3 R209/4. [Return to page 4]

52. Royal Commission into British Nuclear Tests in Australia, The report of the Royal Commission into British Nuclear Tests in Australia, 3 vols., vol. 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1985, pp. 233–4. [Return to page 4]

53. Sun Herald, 31 December 2000. [Return to page 5]

54. Neville Nicholls, 'Developments in climatology in Australia, 1946–1996', Australian Meteorological Magazine, vol. 46, 1997 [Return to page 5]

55. Peter Whetton, 'Floods, droughts and the Southern Oscillation connection', in Eric K. Webb (ed.), Windows on meteorology: Australian perspective, CSIRO, Melbourne, 1997, p. 181. [Return to page 5]

56. On Australia's role in international cooperation, see: W. J. Gibbs, 'A perspective of Australian meteorology—1939–1978', Australian Meteorological Magazine, vol. 30, no. 1, March 1982, p. 7; W. J. Gibbs, 'A very special family: Memories of the Bureau of Meteorology, 1945–1962', Metarch Papers, no. 13, May 1999. [Return to page 5]

Previous Page Bureau of Meteorology Next Page

© Online Edition Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre and Bureau of Meteorology 2001
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher