||Technology in Australia 1788-1988
Table of Contents
I Technology Transported; 1788-1840
II Technology Established; 1840-1940
i Meat Preserving: Heat Processing Introduced
ii Horticultural Products: Heat, Sugar and Solar Drying
iii Refrigeration and the Export of Meat
iv Milling and Baking
v Dairy Products
vii Sugar: Supplying an Ingredient
III The Coming Of Science
IV From Science To Technology: The Post-war Years
V Products And Processes
One obvious move was the appointment of Government dairy experts to advise the industry and to assist in technology transfer. The first was David Wilson, the Victorian Dairy Expert, who had been appointed in 1888. The last was the South Australian Dairy Instructor who was not appointed until 1905. M. A. O'Callaghan, who in 1896 was the first New South Wales appointee later became the first Commonwealth Dairy Expert. It is possible that Wilson's value to Victoria in promoting separators, in the introduction of pasteurization and in the appointment of H. W. Potts, a chemist, to lecture to factory managers and butter-makers, stimulated the other colonial/State governments to action.
Pasteurization and Hygiene
Even though the Victorian Health Act of 1890, for example, dealt with the construction and sanitation of dairies, a major cause of the quality crisis referred to above was the almost universal ignorance of hygiene in the dairy, of cleaning and of sanitizing cleaned equipment. Even in the 1930s the Victorian Superintendent of Dairying found it necessary to insist on the need both to sterilize equipment after cleaning and to ensure that the water used was in fact boiling. Sanitation problems were exacerbated by the introduction at the turn of the century of the first milking machines, but the wholesale use of this equipment was delayed until the late thirties following the easing of the economic depression and the general availability of electricity.
In the 1870s Thomas Mort used refrigeration to transport city milk supplies but refrigeration was slow in coming to the industry. Some dairies used it before the First World War and many farmers used water coolers. As late as the early 1920s, the quality of the milk supplied to both Melbourne and Sydney was causing concern and it was only in 1922 that dairymen supplying Melbourne, for example, were required to cool their milk. In this same period, herd testing and the regular chemical and microbiological examination of milk supplies began. Bottled milk appeared in 1923, but was only slowly accepted. If properly pasteurized and handled, it was far safer than the delivery of loose milk, but it was, and still is, very vulnerable to light.
Organisations in Australian Science at Work - Bacchus Marsh Concentrated Milk Company; Melbourne Milk Supply Company
People in Bright Sparcs - Crowe, Robert; Mort, T. S.; O'Callaghan, M. A.; Pasteur, Louis; Potts, H. W.; Wilson, David
© 1988 Print Edition pages 102 - 192, Online Edition 2000
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher