||Technology in Australia 1788-1988
Table of Contents
I Technology Transported; 1788-1840
II Technology Established; 1840-1940
i Meat Preserving: Heat Processing Introduced
ii Horticultural Products: Heat, Sugar and Solar Drying
iii Refrigeration and the Export of Meat
iv Milling and Baking
v Dairy Products
vii Sugar: Supplying an Ingredient
III The Coming Of Science
IV From Science To Technology: The Post-war Years
V Products And Processes
Brewing  (continued)
Lager brewing (bottom fermentation) which requires lower temperatures and thus some form of refrigeration, was introduced in the 1880s by the Reschs in Sydney, the Cohns in Bendigo, and the Gambrinus brewery in Melbourne. What has been called the 'lager revolution' really began when the Foster brothers came from New York in 1888 bringing with them American plant and a German American brewer. Their product was immediately accepted and their emphasis on low temperatures right into the hotel may have begun the Australian predilection for cold beer. In 1894, de Bavay became head brewer for the Fosters and turned his attention from top to bottom fermentation. The new scientific principles governing the behaviour of organisms and contamination were gradually being applied, refrigeration and pasteurization were available if not generally used, transport improved, and breweries became far more centralized. Many small breweries disappeared altogether or were absorbed, partly for economic reasons, partly because of tighter regulation of the industry, partly because of inability to control microbiological problems, and even possibly because of the introduction of the crown sealed bottle immediately prior to the outbreak of the First World War
The Australian lager style could be said to have emerged from the efforts of the (de Bavay) Melbourne school with modifying influences introduced following visits by many of the brewers concerned to Europe in the early years of this century. Cane sugar was well established as a brewing adjunct and fermentation procedures had been adapted to the requirements of the lager yeasts, which were, in the main, obtained from Europe. Australian malts had shown some improvement as the advantages achieved by the use of various forms of temperature control and pneumatic malting were recognized by the maltsters. Domestic hops, upon which the brewers placed increasing reliance, were derived from both the English varieties ('straights') and Cluster types from North America. They were generally considered to be relatively low aroma hops and consequently Australian beers were, and in many cases still are, considered to show little hop aroma.
Lager brewing was well established in South Australia by 1902, but was rather slow in spreading to other States. Difficulties during the First World War undoubtedly contributed to this, as they also slowed technological growth and led to 'low'-alcohol brewing. Top fermentation continued, and such beer is still produced in two States, but by 1939, most Australian beer was of the lager type. In the post-war years, continuous fermentation of beer has been tried, especially in New Zealand, but because of the demonstrated difficulty of maintaining a consistent product, it has not been favoured in Australia.
In 1886, Dr. E. R. Moritz, a well known consultant, founded in London a club of technical men from the industry. By 1904 it had become the Institute of Brewing, the world's leading scientific brewing organization, qualifying body, and publisher of its own high quality journal. Mainly through de Bavay's work, there was in Australia also at this time an awareness of the value of science in brewing. A vigorous trade press dating from the 1880s covered many technical aspects of the industry and in 1907 the Victoria Institute of Brewing was formed. It seems, however, to have had a short life and brewing reverted very largely to the art and tradition which it had always been. In September 1922, F. W. J. Clendinnen, an able chemist, joined Carlton Brewery and set up a laboratory. His influence was such that he is regarded by some as the 'father' of Australian brewing. He brought science to the brewery both by instituting tighter control of the brewing process and by overcoming defects of beer, but the major changes deriving from the application of science followed after the war.
Organisations in Australian Science at Work - Carlton Brewery; Victoria Institute of Brewing
People in Bright Sparcs - Clendinnen, F. W. J.; Cohns, Bendigo; de Bavay, Auguste
© 1988 Print Edition pages 105 - 106, Online Edition 2000
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher