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Technology in Australia 1788-1988Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
Table of Contents

Chapter 3

I Background

II Early European Settlements

III Assessment Of Available Water Resources

IV Water Supplies For Goldmining Development

V Irrigation Development

VI Farm And Stock Water Supplies

VII Urban Water Supplies

VIII Wastewater Management And Treatment
i Treatment processes
ii Re-use of effluent

IX Water Quality Management

X Limnological And Water Quality Research

XI New Techniques In Water Resource Planning And Management

XII Legislation

XIII Conclusion

XIV List Of Abbreviations

XV Acknowledgements

XVI Plantations-high Productivity Resources



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Wastewater Management And Treatment

The term 'wastewater' is used here to cover all wastewaters, including sewage and industrial wastewaters. Wastewater is an inevitable and objectionable product of human settlements, necessitating treatment, frequently of a complex nature, in the interest of public health and the environment.

Early facilities for the disposal of sewage in Australia were primitive in the extreme, but public health considerations in Sydney and Melbourne soon led to the development of collection and removal works for those and other large cities. Australia's sewerage authorities, coming late into the field, had the advantage of being able to select the most appropriate technologies from those in use elsewhere, after frequent visits to Europe and North America by Australian engineers. This practice has continued to the present day, with South Africa added to the visiting list because of climatic and other similarities to Australia. This practice has assisted in keeping local knowledge up to date with new technology, often successfully modified for local conditions, but has militated against the development of an adequate level of original research in this country. The main emphasis has therefore been on adaptation of overseas processes.

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© 1988 Print Edition page 178, Online Edition 2000
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