||Technology in Australia 1788-1988
Table of Contents
I The Present Energy Economy
II Australian Energy Consumption
III Research And Development
i Electrical Research Board
ii Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
iii National Energy Research Development and Demonstration Council
iv National Energy Advisory Council
V Oil And Natural Gas
VI Solar Energy
VII Nuclear Energy
VIII Bagasse Firewood And Other Biomass
IX Electric Power Generation And Distribution electric Power Generation And Distribution
X Manufactured Gas
XI Industrial Process Heat
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganizationCoal
CSIRO began research on coal in 1949 at Ryde NSW, where the Division of Fossil Fuels is at present located. In conjunction with the Joint Coal Board and Australian Coal Industries Research Laboratories Ltd (ACIRL), work was undertaken to determine the characteristics of a coal seam prior to mining.
By the 1970s, when Australia was emerging as the world's largest exporter of coal, it became clear that environmental pollution due to fly ash emissions from smoke stacks was becoming a problem that was a potential threat to exports. The technology of electrostatic precipitation was too poorly understood to be able to collect fly ash sufficiently effective to comply with smoke emission regulations. This gap in knowledge was filled by a CSIRO team, to the considerable benefit of the coal export industry. The team, led by Potter and Paulson, developed a technique for reliably estimating the design parameters for a projected precipitator, using observations obtained from a scaled-down coal combustion furnace. This new technology was taken up by the industry and by 1980 two counterparts of the CSIRO combustion facility had been built in Japan. It is now possible to design an effective electrostatic precipitator using routine analyses of each coal and its ash.
It has always been important to know the ash content of a coal. A big improvement in the method of determining this came about in the early 1980s, with the development of on-line coal analysis, a field in which Australia has become internationally recognised through the work of scientists and engineers at The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), CSIRO, the Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre (University of Queensland), The Australian Mineral Development Laboratories (AMDEL), and Mineral Control Instrumentation Pty. Ltd. By 1987 some 33 Coal-scan Ash Monitors were in use in four countries, working either directly through the coal conveyor or on a sample by-line. They operate by comparing the difference between coal and its ash for transmission and scattering of gamma rays. Later the principle was adapted for use with neutrons and X-rays, which led to on-line analysis of slurries in the coal washery, resulting in a 10 per cent increase in output.
Organisations in Australian Science at Work - Australian Atomic Energy Commission; Australian Coal Industries Research Laboratories Ltd (A.C.I.R.L.); Australian Mineral Development Laboratories; CSIRO; CSIRO Central Experimental Workshops; CSIRO Division of Fossil Fuels; CSIRO Division of Mechanical Engineering; Joint Coal Board; Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre; Mineral Control Instrumentation Pty Ltd
People in Bright Sparcs - Morse, R. N.; Paulson, C. A.; Potter, E. C.
© 1988 Print Edition pages 785 - 786, Online Edition 2000
Published by Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher