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Technology in Australia 1788-1988Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
Table of Contents

Chapter 6

I Construction During The Settlement Years

II The Use Of Timber As A Structural Material

III Structural Steel

IV Concrete Technology

V Housing

VI Industrialised Pre-cast Concrete Housing

VII Ports And Harbours
i Containerisation
ii Mineral Ports
iii Oil and Gas Ports
iv Other Bulk Cargoes
v Dredging

VIII Roads

IX Heavy Foundations

X Bridges

XI Sewerage

XII Water Engineering

XIII Railways

XIV Major Buildings

XV Airports

XVI Thermal Power Stations

XVII Materials Handling

XVIII Oil Industry

XIX The Snowy Mountains Scheme

XX The Sydney Opera House

XXI The Sydney Harbour Bridge

XXII Hamersley Iron

XXIII North West Shelf

Sources and References


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The maximum exchange of a general cargo ship pre-containerisation at a capital city port was approximately 7,000 tonnes, whereas with present container ships it can be as high as 20,000 tonnes. It is mainly for this reason that land areas in the order of 14-15 ha per berth are now needed for container terminals, whereas previously a general cargo berth would have had a maximum of 4-5 ha.

A typical example of modern world-class container facilities is shown in Fig. 17 of Port Botany and these can be compared with Fig. 18 showing shipping facilities existing at Darling Harbour, Sydney, until the early 1960s. Port Botany container berths meet the unique requirements of the container trades, in that each terminal has approximately 1,000 metres of wharfage, capable of accommodating at least three present day container ships, three 35 tonne wharf cranes, 15.25 metres of water at the face of the berths, 42 ha of 'backup' land, paved to meet the 100 tonne axle loadings imposed by mobile container handling equipment, and major road and rail links. Fig. 17 also shows the 2 km armoured revetment wall constructed to protect the reclamation and create a still water port in the area of Botany Bay originally most exposed to wave attack. The design of this port to ensure that container ships can be loaded and unloaded regardless of offshore wave heights of 10 metres would not have been practical without current mathematical and physical modelling techniques.

Figure 17

17 Port Botany: Container Terminals as well as bulk liquids and LPG Terminals

Figure 18

18 Darling Harbour: Sydney -Jetties built in the 1920s

Specialised container terminals have been provided at Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Fremantle, Brisbane, Darwin and Geelong. In addition, container cranes are also available at Townsville, Newcastle and Burnie.

People in Bright Sparcs - Wallace, J. M.

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© 1988 Print Edition pages 339 - 340, Online Edition 2000
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