||Federation and Meteorology
Table of Contents
Memories of the Bureau, 1946 to 1962
Chapter 1: The Warren Years, 1946 to 1950
Chapter 2: International Meteorology
Chapter 3: The Timcke Years, 1950 to 1955
A Period of Consolidation
Services for the General Public
Rockets and Atomic Weapons
Instruments and Observations
Climate and Statistics
Central Analysis and Development
The Meteorology Act
Achievements of the Timcke Years
Chapter 4: A Year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Chapter 5: The Dwyer Years, 1955 to 1962
Chapter 6: A Springboard for the Future
Appendix 1: References
Appendix 2: Reports, Papers, Manuscripts
Appendix 3: Milestones
Appendix 4: Acknowledgements
Appendix 5: Summary by H. N. Warren of the Operation of the Meteorological Section of Allied Air Headquarters, Brisbane, 194245
Research (continued)The equipment used was a hydrogen-inflated tethered blimp with fins called a 'kytoon' which carried the instruments and the fine cable which as well as holding the blimp carried the electrical messages from the sensors to a recorder on the ground. PMG trucks transported equipment and operators from Euroa to Dookie and a mid-point station so that observations of profiles could be made at the three stations.
The working up of the results of the exercise took some time. The project was a fascinating example of how engineers are faced with problems similar to meteorologists. Much investigation and research was required to determine the optimum method of updating the telecommunications links between centres of population in Australia. It is interesting to recall that in the early 1940s Cornish and Squires had discussions with Boswell of the PMG on the problem of atmospheric refraction of short radio waves. They were aware that like optical refraction, the bending of radio waves was a meteorological phenomenon.
Meteorological Study No 1 reviewed the formulae describing the dependence of refraction on the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity and discussed similar optical effects. The report gives examples of profiles of refractive index calculated from individual radiosonde ascents at Darwin, Alice Springs, Hobart and Garbutt which gave a general indication of some Australian conditions.
One special investigation of particular interest was H. E. (Herbie) Whittingham's study of the long-range forecasting method of Inigo Jones. A disciple of Clement Wragge in the early 1900s, Jones developed a method of long-range forecasting based on the notion that a number of cycles were apparent in rainfall records which enabled forecasts to be made for some years ahead. Along with other private forecasters, most of whom had a special interest in weather, he had a clientele which, in the absence of long-range forecasts from the Bureau, needed his advice. Australia's climate, like that of other countries having arid and marginal lands, produces rainfall fluctuations which the poet Dorothea MacKellar memorably described as "droughts and flooding rains".
Many Australian farmers are haunted by the prospect of droughts and floods and many subscribed to Inigo Jones' long-range forecasting service as an aid to decision making on which crops to plant, and when.
People in Bright Sparcs - Cornish, Allan William; Jones, Inigo Owen; Squires, Patrick; Timcke, Edward Waldemar; Whittingham, Herbert E. (Herb); Wragge, Clement Lindley
© Online Edition Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre and Bureau of Meteorology 2001
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