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Table of Contents

Memories of the Bureau, 1946 to 1962

Foreword

Terminology

Prologue

Preface

Chapter 1: The Warren Years, 1946 to 1950

Chapter 2: International Meteorology

Chapter 3: The Timcke Years, 1950 to 1955

Chapter 4: A Year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Chapter 5: The Dwyer Years, 1955 to 1962
Leonard Joseph Dwyer—A Complex Character
Reorganising the Bureau
Public Weather Services
Forecasts for the General Public
Importance of Radio Stations
The Advent of Television
Automatic Telephone Forecast Service
Beacons
Wording and Verification of Forecasts
Warnings
Services for Aviation
Atomic Weapons Tests
Atomic Weapons Tests—Mosaic G1 and G2
Atomic Weapons Tests—Buffalo 1, 2, 3 and 4
Atomic Weapons Tests—Operations Antler, 2 and 3
Atomic Weapons Tests—Minor Trials
Instruments and Observations
Radiosondes
Radar/Radio Winds and Radar Weather Watch
Automatic Weather Stations
Sferics
Meteorological Satellites
Telecommunications
Tropical Cyclones
Bureau Conference on Tropical Cyclones
International Symposium on Tropical Cyclones, Brisbane
Hydrometeorology
Design of Water Storages, Etc
Flood Forecasting
Cloud Seeding
Reduction of Evaporation
Rain Seminar
Cloud Physics
Fire Weather
Research and Special Investigations
International Activities
The International Geophysical Year
The Antarctic and Southern Ocean
International Symposium on Antarctic Meteorology
International Antarctic Analysis Centre
ADP, EDP and Computers
Training
Publications
Management Conference
Services Conference
CSIRO and the Universities
Achievements of the Dwyer Years

Chapter 6: A Springboard for the Future

Appendix 1: References

Appendix 2: Reports, Papers, Manuscripts

Appendix 3: Milestones

Appendix 4: Acknowledgements

Appendix 5: Summary by H. N. Warren of the Operation of the Meteorological Section of Allied Air Headquarters, Brisbane, 1942–45

Endnotes

Index
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The Antarctic and Southern Ocean

Chapters 1 and 3 outlined the development of meteorological observations in the Southern Ocean and Antarctica beginning with the US Operation Highjump and the establishment of Australian bases on Heard and Macquarie Islands in the late 1940s. These operations were primarily motivated by the desire to stake territorial claims to Antarctica, although from the meteorologists' point of view meteorological observations from these expeditions were the beginning of the satisfaction of a long felt need to provide a network of observations over the Southern Ocean and Antarctica to study atmospheric processes leading to an improvement in weather forecasting in countries in lower latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

The advent of the IGY and the signing of the Antarctic Treaty meant the end, or the deferment, of territorial claims in Antarctica and the further improvement in meteorological networks. The map of IGY bases (fig 32) shows the 55 locations in Antarctica or on island bases poleward of about 40 S from which meteorological observations were made for the whole or part of the IGY This was enough for a reasonably comprehensive picture of synoptic analysis in the region although there were still large gaps in parts of the Southern Ocean. Some two or three decades later these gaps were to be filled to some extent by observations from meteorological satellites and drifting buoys.

It will be seen that Australia had made a considerable contribution to the IGY. Unable to maintain the base at Heard Island when faced with the requirement to establish bases on the Antarctic continent, ANARE expeditioners built and occupied bases at Mawson and Davis and continued to operate the base at Macquarie Island. Australia also took over the responsibility of operating the base established by the US at Wilkes.

Tim Bowden in The silence calling (1997) has produced a most readable account of Australian participation in Antarctic exploration which mentions Alan Martin, Aub Gotley, Andy Garriock, Frank Hannan, Peter Shaw, Harry Alderdice, Ron Chadder, Jim McCarthy, Neil Streten, Peter Liiv, Shorty Carrol and Bob Dingle. The full story of the exploits of Bureau staff at these bases is yet to be written and requires far more research than I can accomplish. It is hoped that it will be told in some detail at some later time.


People in Bright Sparcs - Dwyer, Leonard Joseph; Shaw, Peter; Streten, Neil Anthony

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Gibbs, W. J. 1999 'A Very Special Family: Memories of the Bureau of Meteorology 1946 to 1962', Metarch Papers, No. 13 May 1999, Bureau of Meteorology

© Online Edition Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre and Bureau of Meteorology 2001
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